Fragile watermarking for image authentication using dyadic walsh ordering

(1) * Prajanto Wahyu Adi Mail (Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia)
(2) Adi Wibowo Mail (Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia)
(3) Guruh Aryotejo Mail (Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia)
(4) Ferda Ernawan Mail (Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia)
*corresponding author


A digital image is subjected to the most manipulation. This is driven by the easy manipulating process through image editing software which is growing rapidly. These problems can be solved through the watermarking model as an active authentication system for the image. One of the most popular methods is Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) which has good imperceptibility and detection capabilities. Nevertheless, SVD has high complexity and can only utilize one singular matrix S, and ignore two orthogonal matrices. This paper proposes the use of the Walsh matrix with dyadic ordering to generate a new S matrix without the orthogonal matrices. The experimental results showed that the proposed method was able to reduce computational time by 22% and 13% compared to the SVD-based method and similar methods based on the Hadamard matrix respectively. This research can be used as a reference to speed up the computing time of the watermarking methods without compromising the level of imperceptibility and authentication.


Watermarking; Dyadic Walsh matrix; Active tampering detection; Image authentication



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