Soil porosity modelling for immersive serious game based on vertical angle, depth, and speed of tillage

(1) * Anang Kukuh Adisusilo Mail (Institut Technology of Sepuluh November Surabaya, Indonesia)
(2) Mochamad Hariadi Mail (Institut Technology of Sepuluh November Surabaya, Indonesia)
(3) Eko Mulyanto Yuniarno Mail (Institut Technology of Sepuluh November Surabaya, Indonesia)
(4) Bambang Purwantana Mail (Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia)
(5) Radi Radi Mail (Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia)
*corresponding author


The real data support the “seriousness” of the serious game and give more authentic situations, which can make players feel immersed in scenarios, and gain a real experience. Therefore, the modeler must be able to recognize whether a model reflects reality to identify and deal with divergences between theory and data. In this paper, we present a model for design a basis of immersive in serious games. The studied case is the tillage using a moldboard plow, by taking real data through an experiment use a device called soil bin. It aims to determine the effect of angle, depth, and speed on the soil porosity; by comparing the value of the smallest error using the polynomial function of the use of different orders. The result of an average smallest error with the polynomial approach is 1.10E-07 in the 3rd order, closer to the experimental value. Therefore, the model can be used for designing immersive serious game.


Soil porosity; Modeling; Immersive; Serious game; Polynomial function



Article metrics

Abstract views : 57 | PDF views : 6




Full Text



[1] C. C. Abt, Serious games. University Press of America, 1987, available at:

[2] B. Sawyer, Improving public policy through game-based learning and simulation,foresight and governance project: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1st ed. Digitalmill, Inc, 2002, available at:

[3] P.-M. Noemí and S. H. Máximo, “Educational Games for Learning,” Univers. J. Educ. Res., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 230–238, 2014, doi:

[4] A. Alexander, T. Brunyé, J. Sidman, and S. a Weil, “From gaming to training: A review of studies on fidelity, immersion, presence, and buy-in and their effects on transfer in pc-based simulations and games,” DARWARS Train. Impact Gr., no. November, p. 14, 2005, doi:

[5] D. Hooshyar, M. Yousefi, and H. Lim, “Data-Driven Approaches to Game Player Modeling,” ACM Comput. Surv., vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1–19, Jan. 2018, doi:

[6] Q. Ma, Z. Yang, H. Chen, D. Zhu, and H. Guo, “A Serious Game for Teaching and Learning Agricultural Machinery Driving,” 2012 Int. Conf. Artif. Intell. Soft Comput., vol. 12, pp. 56–62, 2012, available at:

[7] H.S. Jeshvaghani, S.K.H. Dehkordi, M.F. Samani, and H.R. Dehkordi, “Comparison and Optimization of Graphical Methods of Moldboard Plough Bottom Design Using Computational Simulation,” J. Am. Sci., no. 6, pp. 414–420, 2013, available at:

[8] L. Jianjun, “The Study on Agricultural Machinery Design and Modeling Method,” Int. J. Adv. Comput. Technol. , vol. 4, no. 22, pp. 678–684, 2012, doi:

[9] G. Soepardi, Sifat dan ciri tanah (Soil properties and characteristic). Indonesia: Bogor Agricultural University, 1983, available at:

[10] A. McCauley, C. Jones, and J. Jacobsen, “Basic Soil Properties,” Soil Water, pp. 1–12, 2005, available at:

[11] E. Latif, M. Lawrence, A. Shea, and P. Walker, “Moisture buffer potential of experimental wall assemblies incorporating formulated hemp-lime,” Build. Environ., vol. 93, no. P2, pp. 199–209, 2015, doi:

[12] N. C. Brady and R. R. Weil, The nature and properties of soils, no. Ed. 14. 2014, available at:

[13] H. P. Smith and L. H. Wilkes, Farm machinery and equipment. McGraw-Hill translate by Tri Purwadi ; editor: GembongTjitro-soepomo, (1990), Yogyakarta : GadjahMada University Press, 1976, available at:

[14] R. Rouse, Game Design : Theory & Practice, USA: Wordware Publishing Inc, 2000, available at:

[15] E. Brown and P. Cairns, “A grounded investigation of game immersion,” in Extended abstracts of the 2004 conference on Human factors and computing systems - CHI ’04, 2004, p. 1297, doi:

[16] A. F. S. Barbosa, P. N. M. Pereira, J. A. F. F. Dias, and F. G. M. Silva, “A New Methodology of Design and Development of Serious Games,” Int. J. Comput. Games Technol., vol. 2014, pp. 1–8, 2014, doi:

[17] P. Zemliansky and D. M. Wilcox, Design and implementation of educational games : theoretical and practical perspectives. Information Science Reference, 2010, available at:

[18] M. Kebritchi and A. Hirumi, “Examining the pedagogical foundations of modern educational computer games,” Comput. Educ., vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1729–1743, 2008, doi:

[19] P. Jarvis, J. Holford, and C. Griffin, The theory and practice of learning. Kogan Page, 2003, available at:

[20] B. D. Ruben, “Simulations, games, and experience-based learning: The quest for a new paradigm for teaching and learning,” Simul. Gaming, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 498–505, 1999, doi:

[21] J. E. Ormrod, Human Learning. 2012, available at:

[22] D. Hooshyar, M. Yousefi, and H. Lim, “A systematic review of data-driven approaches in player modeling of educational games,” 2017, pp. 1–21, doi:

[23] M. J. Mayo, “Video games: A route to large-scale STEM education?,” 2009, vol. 323, no. 5910, pp. 79–82, doi:

[24] M. P. Driscoll, “Psychology of learning for instruction,” Learn. Instr., vol. 3rd, p. xvi, 448, 2005, doi:

[25] R. Van Eck, “Building Artificially Intelligent Learning Games,” 2007, pp. 271–307, doi:

[26] D. G. Oblinger, “The Next Generation of Educational Engagement,” J. Interact. Media Educ., vol. 2004, no. 8, pp. 1–18, 2004, doi:

[27] S. De Freitas, “Learning in Immersive worlds A review of game-based learning Prepared for the JISC e-Learning Programme,” JISC eLearning Innov., vol. 3.3, no. October 14, p. 73, 2006, doi:

[28] A. B. Meijer and H. Koppelaar, “Towards Multi-Objective Game Theory – With Application To Go,” in GAME-ON, 2003, p. 243, availbale at:

[29] R. F. Kenny and G.A. Gunter, “Endogenous Fantasy – Based Serious Games: Intrinsic Motivation and Learning,” Int. J. Soc. Sci., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 8–13, 2007, available at:

[30] P. Rooney, “A theoretical framework for serious game design: Exploring pedagogy, play and fidelity and their implications for the design process,” Int. J. Game-Based Learn., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 41–60, 2012, doi:

[31] M. Seeney and H. Routledge, “Drawing circles in the sand: Integrating content into serious games,” 2009, pp. 84–97, doi:

[32] M. McMahon and C. Ojeda, “A Model of Immersion to Guide the Design of Serious Games,” World Conf. ELearning Corp. Gov. Healthc. High. Educ. 2008, p. 1833–1842 ST–A Model of Immersion to Guide the, 2007, available at:

[33] M. Prensky, “Digital game-based learning,” Comput. Entertain., vol. 1, no. 1, p. 21, 2003, doi:

[34] K. Kiili, “Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model,” Internet High. Educ., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 13–24, 2005, doi:

[35] B. A. Whitton, N. T. W. Ellwood, and B. Kawecka, “Biology of the freshwater diatom Didymosphenia: a review,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 630, no. 1, pp. 1–37, Sep. 2009, doi:

[36] M. D. Dickey, “Engaging by design: How engagement strategies in popular computer and video games can inform instructional design,” Educ. Technol. Res. Dev., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 67–83, 2005, doi:

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Advances in Intelligent Informatics
ISSN 2442-6571  (print) | 2548-3161 (online)
Organized by Informatics Department - Universitas Ahmad Dahlan , and UTM Big Data Centre - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Published by Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
W :
E :, (paper handling issues), (publication issues)

View IJAIN Stats

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0