Performance evaluation and mathematical analysis of direct sequence and frequency hopping spread spectrum systems under wideband interference

(1) Fawzan Ghalib Abdul Karim Bawahab Mail (Department of Physics, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Indonesia)
(2) * Edi Kurniawan Mail (Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Indonesia)
(3) Elvan Yuniarti Mail (Department of Physics, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Indonesia)
(4) Bambang Widiyatmoko Mail (Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Indonesia)
(5) Dwi Bayuwati Mail (Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Indonesia)
*corresponding author


This paper presents performance evaluation and comparison analysis of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) systems. The evaluation and analysis are done based on the systems performance against wideband interferences. The interferences are signals with similar spectrum characteristic to the transmitted signals of DSSS and FHSS systems. Bit Error Ratio (BER) is used as evaluation parameter to assess the performance of both systems. Simulation and mathematical analysis are performed to test and verify the performance of both systems. Mathematical analysis also verifies that increasing Spreading Frequency on certain conditions will reduce the BER. This research also points out that FHSS system has a better performance compared to DSSS system indicated by smaller BER.


DSSS; FHSS; Spread spectrum; Interference; Bit error ratio (BER)



Article metrics

Abstract views : 126 | PDF views : 20




Full Text



[1] D. Torrieri, Principles of Spread-Spectrum Communication Systems, Maryland: Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2015, available at:

[2] R. l. Pickholtz, D. l. Schilling and L. B. Milstein, "Theory of Spread-Spectrum Communications," IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 855-884, 1982, doi :

[3] T. Tsui and T. Clarkson, "Spread-Spectrum Communication Techniques," Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 3-12, 1994, doi :

[4] G. Ponuratinam, B. Patel, S. S. Rizvi and K. M. Elleithy, "Improvement in the Spread Spectrum System in DSSS, FHSS, AND CDMA," in ASEE, Bridgeport, 2009, available at :

[5] K. Wesołowski, Introduction To Digital Communication Systems, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2009, available at : Google Scholar.

[6] E. Cianca and R. Prasad, "Spread Spectrum Techniques and their Applications to Wireless Communications," IETE Journal of Research , vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 5-18, 2005, doi :

[7] A. Jamalipour and A. Ogawa, "Packet admission control in a direct-sequence spread-spectrum LEO satellite communications network," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1649-1656, 1997, doi :

[8] J. Meel, "Spread Spectrum (SS) applications," De Nayer Instituut, Hogeschool Voor Wetenschap & Kunst, Rotselaar, 1999, available at :

[9] S. V. Maric, Z. I. Kostic and E. L. Titlebaum, "A new family of optical code sequences for use in spread-spectrum fiber-optic local area networks," IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1217-1221, 1993, doi :

[10] M. Ednch and R. Schmalenberger, "Combined DSSS/FHSS approach to interference rejection and navigation support in UAV communications and control," in IEEE Seventh International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications, Prague, 2002, doi :

[11] F. Qu, X. Qin, L. Yang and T. C. Yang, "Spread-Spectrum Method Using Multiple Sequences for Underwater Acoustic Communications," IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1-12, 2017, doi :

[12] I. V. Bolo, T. P. Espera, R. V. Marquez, C. D. Ambatali and N. I. Bernardo, "Performance Evaluation of Spread Spectrum-based Multiple Access Combined with 5G Filter-based Multi-carrier Waveforms," Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2017, doi :

[13] Y. Xiang, I. Natgunanathan, D. Peng, G. Hua and B. Liu, "Spread Spectrum Audio Watermarking Using Multiple Orthogonal PN Sequences and Variable Embedding Strengths and Polarities," IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 529-539, 2018, doi :

[14] I. J. Cox, J. Kilian, T. Leighton and T. Shamoon, "Secure spread spectrum watermarking for images, audio and video," Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, pp. 243-246, 1996, doi :

[15] I. J. Cox, J. Kilian, F. T. Leighton and T. Shamoon, "Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1673-1687, 1997, doi :

[16] A. Singh, B. Kumar, M. Dave and . Mohan, "Robust and Imperceptible Spread-Spectrum Watermarking for Telemedicine Applications," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section A: Physical Sciences, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 295-301, 2015, doi :

[17] F. Pareschi, R. Rovatti and G. Setti, "EMI Reduction via Spread Spectrum in DC/DC Converters: State of the Art, Optimization, and Tradeoffs," IEEE Access, vol. 3, pp. 2857-2874, 2015, doi :

[18] H.-P. Park, M. Kim and J.-H. Jung, "Spread Spectrum Technique to Reduce EMI Emission for an LLC Resonant Converter Using a Hybrid Modulation Method," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 3717-3721, 2018, doi :

[19] H. Alsuraisry, J. Cheng, J. Lin, Y. Kuo, J. Tsai and T. Huang, "A 6‐GHz spread spectrum clock generation with EMI reduction of 30.2 dB for SATA‐III applications," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 622-624, 2017, doi :

[20] R. l. Pickholtz, L. B. Milstein and D. l. Schilling, "Spread Spectrum for Mobile Communications," IEEE Transactions On Vehicular Technology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 313-322, 1991, doi :

[21] W. Xiaoying, "Study Spread Spectrum In Matlab," School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Drive, 2003, available at :

[22] P. Jung, P. W. Baier and A. Steil, "Advantages of CDMA and spread spectrum techniques over FDMA and TDMA in cellular mobile radio applications," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 357-364, 1993, doi :

[23] S. Thuneibat, "Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum with Barker Code and QPSK," IOSR Journal of Engineering , vol. 06, no. 06, pp. 62-67, 2016, available at :

[24] P. Olšovský and P. Podhoranský, "Design And Simulation Of Frequency Hopping Technique In Matlab," Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Bratislava, available at :

[25] S. S. S. Sugi and V. J. C, "Spread Spectrum Modulation Techniques using MATLAB," International Journal Of Innovative Research In Technology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 47-52, 2015, available at :

[26] P. Waghmare and R. Nawkhare, "Performance Evaluation of DSSS and FHSS Using Modulation Technique," International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 9150-9156, 2015, available at :

[27] L. Nurmalia and M. Pinem, "Analisis Perbandingan Teknologi Spread Spectrum FHSS dan DSSS pada Sistem CDMA," SINGUDA ENSIKOM, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 30-35, 2013, available at :

[28] M. Soroushnejad and E. Geraniotis, "Probability of capture and rejection of primary multiple-access interference in spread-spectrum networks," IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 986-994, 1991, doi :

[29] E. McCune, "DSSS vs. FHSS narrowband interference performance issue," RF Signal Processing, 2000, available at :

[30] M. G. Shayesteh and M. N. Kenari, "Multiple-Access Performance Analysis of Combined Time-Hopping and Spread-Time CDMA System in the Presence of Narrowband Interference," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 1315-1328, 2009, doi :

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Advances in Intelligent Informatics
ISSN 2442-6571  (print) | 2548-3161 (online)
Organized by Informatics Department - Universitas Ahmad Dahlan , and UTM Big Data Centre - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Published by Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
W :
E :, (paper handling issues), (publication issues)

View IJAIN Stats

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0