Data mapping process to handle semantic data problem on student grading system

(1) * Arda Yunianta Mail (Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdul aziz University, Saudi Arabia)
(2) Norazah Yusof Mail (Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdul aziz University, Saudi Arabia)
(3) Arif Bramantoro Mail (Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdul aziz University, Saudi Arabia)
(4) Haviluddin Haviluddin Mail (Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Mulawarman University, Indonesia)
(5) Mohd Shahizan Othman Mail (Faculty of Computing, University Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia)
(6) Nataniel Dengen Mail (Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Mulawarman University, Indonesia)
*corresponding author


Many applications are developed on education domain. Information and data for each application are stored in distributed locations with different data representations on each database. This situation leads to heterogeneity at the level of integration data. Heterogeneity data may cause many problems. One major issue is about the semantic relationships data among applications on education domain, in which the learning data may have the same name but with a different meaning, or learning data that has a different name with same meaning. This paper discusses on semantic data mapping process to handle semantic relationships problem on education domain. There are two main parts in the semantic data mapping process. The first part is the semantic data mapping engine to produce data mapping language with turtle (.ttl) file format as a standard XML file schema, that can be used for Local Java Application using Jena Library and Triple Store. The Turtle file contains detail information about data schema of every application inside the database system. The second part is to provide D2R Server that can be accessed from outside environment using HTTP Protocol. This can be done using SPARQL Clients, Linked Data Clients (RDF Formats) and HTML Browser. To implement the semantic data process, this paper focuses on the student grading system in the learning environment of education domain. By following the proposed semantic data mapping process, the turtle file format is produced as a result of the first part of the process. Finally, this file is used to be combined and integrated with other turtle files in order to map and link with other data representation of other applications.



Article metrics

Abstract views : 703 | PDF views : 155




Full Text



N. Arch-int and S. Arch-int, "Semantic Ontology Mapping for Interoperability of Learning Resource Systems using a rule-based reasoning approach," Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 40, pp. 7428-7443, 2013.

C.-C. Wang, W.-C. Pai, and N. Y. Yen, "A Sharable e-Learning Platform Based on Cloud Computing," presented at the Computer Research and Development (ICCRD), 2011 3rd International Conference on, 2011.

J. Bian, H. Zhang, and X. Peng, "The Research and Implementation of Heterogeneous Data Integration under Ontology Mapping Mechanism," presented at the International Conference on Web Information Systems and Mining, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2011.

C.-C. Ko and S.-C. Young, "Explore the Next Generation of Cloud-Based E-Learning Environment," in Edutainment Technologies. Educational Games and Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality Applications. vol. 6872, M. Chang, W.-Y. Hwang, M.-P. Chen, and W. Müller, Eds., ed: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 107-114.

P. Sandborn, J. Terpenny, R. Rai, R. Nelson, L. Zheng, and C. Schafer, "Knowledge representation and design for managing product obsolescence," in Proceedings of NSF civil, mechanical and manufacturing innovation grantees conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 2011.

H. Dong-mei, D. Yan-ling, Z. Ming-hua, and Z. Chi, "Application of ontology-based automatic ETL in marine data integration," in Electrical & Electronics Engineering (EEESYM), 2012 IEEE Symposium on, 2012, pp. 11-13.

L. Zheng and J. Terpenny, "A hybrid ontology approach for integration of obsolescence information," Computers & Industrial Engineering, vol. 65, pp. 485–499, 2013.

T. Bittner, M. Donnelly, and S. Winter, "Ontology and Semantic Interoperability," in Large-scale 3D Data Integration: Challenges and Opportunities, D. Prosperi and S. Zlatanova, Eds., ed: CRCpress (Tailor & Francis), 2005, pp. 139-160.

J. M. Alcaraz Calero, J. M. Marín Pérez, J. Bernal Bernabé, F. J. Garcia Clemente, G. Martínez Pérez, and A. F. Gómez Skarmeta, "Detection of semantic conflicts in ontology and rule-based information systems," Data & Knowledge Engineering, vol. 69, pp. 1117-1137, 11// 2010.

S. Schulz and C. Martínez-Costa, "How Ontologies Can Improve Semantic Interoperability in Health Care," in Process Support and Knowledge Representation in Health Care. vol. 8268, D. Riaño, R. Lenz, S. Miksch, M. Peleg, M. Reichert, and A. ten Teije, Eds., ed: Springer International Publishing, 2013, pp. 1-10.

S. Sonsilphong and N. Arch-int, "Semantic Interoperability for Data Integration Framework using Semantic Web Services and Rule-based Inference: A case study in healthcare domain," Journal of Convergence Information Technology(JCIT), vol. 8, 2013.

R. Kienast and C. Baumgartner, "Semantic Data Integration on Biomedical Data Using Semantic Web Technologies," in Bioinformatics - Trends and Methodologies, D. M. A. Mahdavi, Ed., ed: InTech, 2011.

M. Melik-Merkumians, A. Zoitl, and T. Moser, "Ontology-based fault diagnosis for industrial control applications," in Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), 2010 IEEE Conference on, 2010, pp. 1-4.

O. Kovalenko and T. Moser, "Using explicit and machine-understandable engineering knowledge for defect detection in automation systems engineering," in International Doctoral Symposium on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (IDoSEAA), Oulu, Finland, 2011, pp. 1-5.

V. Jirkovsky, P. Kadera, M. Obitko, and P. Vrba, "Diagnostics of distributed intelligent control systems: Reasoning using ontologies and hidden markov models," in the 14th IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing (INCOM), 2012, pp. 1315-1320.

J. Barrasa Rodríguez, O. Corcho, and A. Gómez-Pérez, "R2O, an extensible and semantically based database-to-ontology mapping language," in Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Semantic Web and Databases, SWDB 2004. vol. 3372, ed Berlín, Alemania: Springer-Verlag, 2004, pp. 1069-1070.

M. Svihla and I. Jelinek, "Two layer mapping from database to RDF," in Proceed-ings of the Sixth International Scientific Conference Electronic Computers and Informatics, ECI 2004, 2004, pp. 270-275.

Z. Wu, H. Chen, C. Changhuang, G. Zheng, and J. Xu, "DartGrid: Semantic-Based Database Grid," in Computational Science - ICCS 2004: 4th International Conference, Kraków, Poland, June 6-9, 2004, Proceedings, Part I, M. Bubak, G. D. van Albada, P. M. A. Sloot, and J. Dongarra, Eds., ed Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2004, pp. 59-66.

H. Chen and Z. Wu, "DartGrid III: A Semantic Grid Toolkit for Data Integration," in 2005 First International Conference on Semantics, Knowledge and Grid, 2005, pp. 12-12.

E. Prud’hommeaux. (2005, May). Spasql: SPARQL support in MySQL. Available:

W. Zhaohui, D. Shuiguang, W. Jian, C. Huajun, T. Shuming, and G. Haijun, "DartGrid II: a semantic grid platform for ITS," IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 20, pp. 12-15, 2005.

J. B. Rodriguez and A. Gómez-Pérez, "Upgrading relational legacy data to the semantic web," presented at the Proceedings of the 15th international conference on World Wide Web, Edinburgh, Scotland, 2006.

C. Bizer and R. Cyganiak. (2007, June). D2RQ — Lessons Learned. Available:

N. Cullot, R. Ghawi, and K. Yétongnon, "DB2OWL: A Tool for Automatic Database-to-Ontology Mapping," in 15th Italian Symposium on Advanced Database Systems, Torre Canne, 2007, pp. 491-494.

M. Šeleng, M. Laclavík, Z. Balogh, and L. Hluchý, "RDB2Onto: Approach for creating semantic metadata from relational database data," 2007.

M. Svihla and I. Jelinek, "Benchmarking RDF Production Tools," in Database and Expert Systems Applications: 18th International Conference, DEXA 2007, Regensburg, Germany, September 3-7, 2007. Proceedings, R. Wagner, N. Revell, and G. Pernul, Eds., ed Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2007, pp. 700-709.

K. N. Vavliakis, A. L. Symeonidis, G. T. Karagiannis, and P. A. Mitkas, "Eikonomia-An Integrated Semantically Aware Tool for Description and Retrieval of Byzantine Art Information," in 19th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence(ICTAI 2007), 2007, pp. 279-282.

M. Fisher, M. Dean, and G. Joiner, "Use of OWL and SWRL for semantic relational database translation," presented at the OWLED 2008: OWL Experiences and Directions, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 2008.

S. Auer, S. Dietzold, J. Lehmann, S. Hellmann, and D. Aumueller, "Triplify: light-weight linked data publication from relational databases," presented at the Proceedings of the 18th international conference on World wide web, Madrid, Spain, 2009.

C. Bizer, J. Lehmann, G. Kobilarov, #246, r. Auer, C. Becker, et al., "DBpedia - A crystallization point for the Web of Data," Web Semant., vol. 7, pp. 154-165, 2009.

O. Erling and I. Mikhailov, "RDF Support in the Virtuoso DBMS," in Networked Knowledge - Networked Media: Integrating Knowledge Management, New Media Technologies and Semantic Systems, T. Pellegrini, S. Auer, K. Tochtermann, and S. Schaffert, Eds., ed Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009, pp. 7-24.

S. S. Sahoo, W. Halb, S. Hellmann, K. Idehen, T. T. Jr, S. Auer, et al., "A Survey of Current Approaches for Mapping of Relational Databases to RDF," ed, 2009.

J. F. Sequeda, R. Depena, and D. P. Miranker, "Ultrawrap: Using SQL Views for RDB2RDF," in 8th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2009), Washington DC, USA, 2009.

D. M. T. Al-Sudairy and T. G. K. Vasista, "Semantic Data Integration Approaches for E-Governance," International Journal of Web & Semantic Technology, 2011.

K. N. Vavliakis, A. L. Symeonidis, G. T. Karagiannis, and P. A. Mitkas, "An integrated framework for enhancing the semantic transformation, editing and querying of relational databases," Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 38, pp. 3844-3856, 2011.

R. Cyganiak, C. Bizer, J. Garbers, O. Maresch, and C. Becker. (2012, 2). The D2RQ Mapping Language (v0.8 – 2012-03-12 ed.).

K. N. Vavliakis, T. K. Grollios, and P. A. Mitkas, "RDOTE – Publishing Relational Databases into the Semantic Web," Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 86, pp. 89-99, 2013.

C. Bizer and A. Seaborne, "D2RQ - Treating Non-RDF Databases as Virtual RDF Graphs," presented at the ISWC2004 (posters), 2004.

A. Yunianta, N. Yusof, M. S. Othman, A. Aziz, N. Dengen, M. Ugiarto, et al., "Semantic data mapping on E-learning usage index tool to handle heterogeneity of data representation," Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences and Engineering), vol. 69, pp. 1-6, 2014.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Advances in Intelligent Informatics
ISSN 2442-6571  (print) | 2548-3161 (online)
Organized by Informatics Department - Universitas Ahmad Dahlan , and UTM Big Data Centre - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Published by Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
W :
E :, (paper handling issues), (publication issues)

View IJAIN Stats

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0