Reversible difference expansion multi-layer data hiding technique for medical images

(1) Pascal Maniriho Mail (Rwanda Polytechnic - IPRC Karongi, Rwanda)
(2) Leki Jovial Mahoro Mail (Vaal University of Technology, South Africa)
(3) Zephanie Bizimana Mail (Rwanda Polytechnic-IPRC Karongi, Rwanda)
(4) Ephrem Niyigaba Mail (Rwanda Polytechnic-IPRC Karongi, Rwanda)
(5) * Tohari Ahmad Mail (Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Indonesia)
*corresponding author


Maintaining the privacy and security of confidential information in data communication has always been a major concern. It is because the advancement of information technology is likely to be followed by an increase in cybercrime, such as illegal access to sensitive data. Several techniques were proposed to overcome that issue, for example, by hiding data in digital images. Reversible data hiding is an excellent approach for concealing private data due to its ability to be applied in various fields. However, it yields a limited payload and the quality of the image holding data (Stego image), and consequently, these two factors may not be addressed simultaneously. This paper addresses this problem by introducing a new non-complexity difference expansion (DE) and block-based reversible multi-layer data hiding technique constructed by exploring DE. Sensitive data are embedded into the difference values calculated between the original pixels in each block with relatively low complexity. To improve the payload capacity, confidential data are embedded in multiple layers of grayscale medical images while preserving their quality. The experiment results prove that the proposed technique has increased the payload with an average of 369999 bits and kept the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) to the average of 36.506 dB using medical images' adequate security the embedded private data. This proposed method has improved the performance, especially the secret size, without reducing much the quality. Therefore, it is suitable to use for relatively big payloads.


Data hiding; Data protection; Data security; Digital content; Information security



Article metrics

Abstract views : 152 | PDF views : 67




Full Text



[1] X. Zhang, "Reversible Data Hiding With Optimal Value Transfer," IEEE Trans. Multimed., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 316–325, 2013. doi: 10.1109/TMM.2012.2229262

[2] B. Ou, X. Li, and W. Zhang, "PVO-Based Reversible Data Hiding For Encrypted Images," in IEEE China Summit and International Conference on Signaland Information Processing, 2015, pp. 831–835. doi: 10.1109/ChinaSIP.2015.7230521

[3] W. Hong, T. Chen, and J. Chen, "Reversible data hiding using Delaunay triangulation and selective embedment," Inf. Sci. (Ny)., 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.ins.2014.03.030

[4] P. Maniriho and T. Ahmad, "Enhancing the Capability of Data Hiding Method Based on Reduced Difference Expansion," Eng. Lett., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 45–55, 2018. Available at: Google Scholar

[5] X. Zhang and S. Wang, "Efficient Steganographic Embedding by Exploiting Modification Direction," IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 781–783, 2006. doi: 10.1109/LCOMM.2006.060863

[6] Y. Hu, H. Lee, K. Chen, and J. Li, "Hiding Using Two Embedding Directions," vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1500–1512, 2008. doi: 10.1109/TMM.2008.2007341

[7] P. Maniriho and T. Ahmad, "Information Hiding Scheme for Digital Images Using Difference Expansion and Modulus Function," J. King Saud Univ. - Comput. Inf. Sci., 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jksuci.2018.01.011

[8] Y. Kurniawan, L. A. Rahmania, T. Ahmad, W. Wibisono, and R. M. Ijtihadie, "Hiding Secret Data by using Modulo Function in Quad Difference Expansion," in International Conference on Advanced Computer Science and Information Systems (ICACSIS 2016), 2016, pp. 433–437. doi: 10.1109/ICACSIS.2016.7872741

[9] H. S. El-sayed, S. F. El-Zoghdy, and O. S. Faragallah, "Adaptive Difference Expansion-Based Reversible Data Hiding Scheme for Digital Images," Arab. J. Sci. Eng., vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 1091–1107, 2016, doi: 10.1007/s13369-015-1956-7

[10] V. K. C, V. Natarajan, and S. M. S, "Difference Expansion based Reversible Data Hiding for Medical Images," pp. 720–723, 2014. doi: 10.1109/ICCSP.2014.6949937

[11] M. Khodaei and K. Faez, "Reversible Data Hiding By Using Modified Difference Expansion," in 2010 2nd International Conference on Signal Processing Systems (ICSPS), 2010, no. 5, pp. 31–34. doi: 10.1109/ICSPS.2010.5555649

[12] G. S. Yadav and A. Ojha, "A Reversible Data Hiding Scheme with High Security and Improved Embedding Capacity," in 2018 17th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference on Big Data Science And Engineering, 2018, pp. 1555–1559, doi: 10.1109/TrustCom/BigDataSE.2018.00223

[13] A. Mohammadi, M. Nakhkash, and M. A. Akhaee, "A High-Capacity Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images Employing Local Difference Predictor," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 2366–2376, 2020, doi: 10.1109/TCSVT.2020.2990952

[14] J. He, J. Chen, and S. Tang, "Reversible Data Hiding in JPEG Images Based on Negative Influence Models," IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur., vol. 15, no. c, pp. 2121–2133, 2019, doi: 10.1109/TIFS.2019.2958758

[15] X. Yin, W. Lu, W. Liu, J.-M. Guo, J. Huang, and Y.-Q. Shi, "Reversible Data Hiding in Halftone Images Based on Dynamic Embedding States Group," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 8215, no. c, pp. 1–1, 2020, doi: 10.1109/TCSVT.2020.3032685

[16] G. Kaur, S. Singh, and R. Rani, "A high capacity reversible data hiding technique based on pixel value ordering using interlock partitioning," in 2020 7th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks, SPIN 2020, 2020, pp. 727–732, doi: 10.1109/SPIN48934.2020.9071330

[17] F. Aziz, T. Ahmad, A. H. Malik, M. I. Uddin, S. Ahmad, and M. Sharaf, "Reversible data hiding techniques with high message embedding capacity in images," PLoS One, vol. 15, no. 5, 2020, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0231602

[18] H. Wu, "Patch-Level Selection and Breadth-First Prediction Strategy for Reversible Data Hiding," in ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings, 2020, pp. 2837–2841, doi: 10.1109/ICASSP40776.2020.9054386

[19] W. Wang, J. Ye, T. Wang, and W. Wang, "Reversible data hiding scheme based on significant-bit-difference expansion," IET Image Process., pp. 1002–1014, 2017, doi: 10.1049/iet-ipr.2017.0151

[20] V. Kumar and V. Natarajan, "Hybrid local prediction error-based difference expansion reversible watermarking for medical images," Comput. Electr. Eng., vol. 53, pp. 333–345, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.compeleceng.2015.11.033

[21] J. Tian, "Reversible Data Embedding Using a Difference Expansion," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 890–896, 2003, doi: 10.1109/TCSVT.2003.815962

[22] D. Coltuc and A. Tudoroiu, "Multibit Versus Multilevel Embedding In High Capacity Difference Expansion Reversible Watermarking," in 20th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2012), 2012, pp. 1791–1795. Available at: Google Scholar

[23] H. Yi, S. Wei, and H. Jianjun, "Improved Reduced Difference Expansion Based Reversible Data Hiding Scheme for Digital Images," in 9th International Conference on Electronic Measurement & Instruments, 2009. ICEMI '09., pp. 315–318. doi: 10.1109/ICEMI.2009.5274054

[24] R. Kumar and K. H. Jung, "Robust reversible data hiding scheme based on two-layer embedding strategy," Inf. Sci. (Ny)., vol. 512, pp. 96–107, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.ins.2019.09.062

[25] R. Kumar, D. S. Kim, and K. H. Jung, "Enhanced AMBTC based data hiding method using hamming distance and pixel value differencing," J. Inf. Secur. Appl., vol. 47, pp. 94–103, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jisa.2019.04.007

[26] H. Yao, F. Mao, Z. Tang, and C. Qin, "High-fidelity dual-image reversible data hiding via prediction-error shift," Signal Processing, vol. 170, p. 107447, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2019.107447

[27] A. K. Sahu and G. Swain, "High fidelity based reversible data hiding using modified LSB matching and pixel difference," J. King Saud Univ. - Comput. Inf. Sci., 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jksuci.2019.07.004

[28] P. Chowdhuri and B. Jana, "Hiding data in dual color images reversibly via weighted matrix," J. Inf. Secur. Appl., vol. 50, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jisa.2019.102420

[29] S. Bhalerao, I. A. Ansari, A. Kumar, and D. K. Jain, "A reversible and multipurpose ECG data hiding technique for telemedicine applications," Pattern Recognit. Lett., vol. 125, pp. 463–473, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.patrec.2019.06.004

[30] D. Huang and J. Wang, "High-capacity reversible data hiding in encrypted image based on specific encryption process," Signal Process. Image Commun., vol. 80, no. September 2019, p. 115632, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.image.2019.115632

[31] "Partners Infectious Disease Images - eMicrobes Digital Library - Home.". Available at:

[32] S. Chen, "A module-based LSB substitution method with lossless secret data compression," Comput. Stand. Interfaces, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 367–371, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.csi.2010.11.002

[33] T. Ahmad, M. Holil, W. Wibisono, and I. Royyana Muslim, "An improved Quad and RDE-based medical data hiding method," in International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Cybernetics (CYBERNETICSCOM), 2013, pp. 141–145, doi: 10.1109/CyberneticsCom.2013.6865798

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Advances in Intelligent Informatics
ISSN 2442-6571  (print) | 2548-3161 (online)
Organized by Informatics Department - Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, and ASCEE Computer Society
Published by Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
E: (paper handling issues), (publication issues)

View IJAIN Stats

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0