Exploration of hybrid deep learning algorithms for covid-19 mrna vaccine degradation prediction system

(1) Soon Hwai Ing Mail (Faculty of Electronic Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia)
(2) * Azian Azamimi Abdullah Mail (Faculty of Electronic Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia)
(3) Mohd Yusoff Mashor Mail (Faculty of Electronic Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia)
(4) Zeti-Azura Mohamed-Hussein Mail (Centre for Bioinformatics Research & Department of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia)
(5) Zeehaida Mohamed Mail (School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia)
(6) Wei Chern Ang Mail (Clinical Research Centre & Department of Pharmacy, Hospital Tuanku Fauziah, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Malaysia)
*corresponding author


Coronavirus causes a global pandemic that has adversely affected public health, the economy, including every life aspect. To manage the spread, innumerable measurements are gathered. Administering vaccines is considered to be among the precautionary steps under the blueprint. Among all vaccines, the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines provide notable effectiveness with minimal side effects. However, it is easily degraded and limits its application. Therefore, considering the cruciality of predicting the degradation rate of the mRNA vaccine, this prediction study is proposed. In addition, this study compared the hybridizing sequence of the hybrid model to identify its influence on prediction performance. Five models are created for exploration and prediction on the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine dataset provided by Stanford University and made accessible on the Kaggle community platform employing the two deep learning algorithms, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) as well as Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU). The Mean Columnwise Root Mean Square Error (MCRMSE) performance metric was utilized to assess each model’s performance. Results demonstrated that both GRU and LSTM are befitting for predicting the degradation rate of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Moreover, performance improvement could be achieved by performing the hybridization approach. Among Hybrid_1, Hybrid_2, and Hybrid_3, when trained with Set_1 augmented data, Hybrid_3 with the lowest training error (0.1257) and validation error (0.1324) surpassed the other two models; the same for model training with Set_2 augmented data, scoring 0.0164 and 0.0175 MCRMSE for training error and validation error, respectively. The variance in results obtained by hybrid models from experimenting claimed hybridizing sequence of algorithms in hybrid modeling should be concerned.




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